IME Journal

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IME Journal

Year : 2020, Volume & Issue : IME Journal 14(1), JAN-JUN 2020

IME Journal is a referred bi-annual Journal of the Institute of Management Education, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad. It is published twice a year in January and July. The objective of the Journal is to provide research and information support to the academicians, researchers, corporate sector and policy makers so as to equip them with latest development & trends in the areas of Management, Information Technology and Law. The Journal publishes Research Papers, Articles, Case Studies, Book Reviews, Bibliography, etc. The selection of the papers in this journal is done through a blind review process.

Executive Editor

Professor H.P. Gupta

Vice-Chairman, IME




Prof. Dr. A.K. Sharma


Mob: 9212200909


Editorial Advisory Board


Prof. Dr. Atul Mathur,,

College of Management & IT, IME, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201005, India E-mail: Mob: 9927286334


Prof. Dr. Lalit Mohan Upadhyaya,,

Municipal Post Graduate College, Mussoorie, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248179, India E-mail: Mob: 9410784752


Dr. Hemant Bhanawat,,

Department of Commerce, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh 173101, India E-mail: Mob:9928849202


Dr. Ashwini Tiwari,

Head, Library and Information Science, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305009, India Mob: 9414006113


Prof. Dr. S.N. Sharma,,

College of Law, IME, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201005, India E-mail: Mob: 9459162797


Dr. Parul Mittal,

Dept. of Commerce, KLP College, Rewari, Haryana 123401, India. E-mail: Mob: 9729704037


Dr. Jasbir Singh,

Central Library In-Charge, JVBI (Deemed University), Ladnun, Nagaur, Rajasthan 341306, India E-mail: Mob: 9816365980


General guidelines


The purpose of the Guide to Authors is to provide instructions and guidelines that will assist authors, editors, and reviewers in preparing material for publication in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences (BPAS).The style guidelines presented here should be followed by authors preparing a scientific research papers for publication in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences (BPAS).Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

When you prepare your research paper,  it must contains  the following order:






List here all author affiliations including position in the department, department, institute, city, state, country, E-mail.


Name , Address, Phone numbers, Facsimile numbers, E-mail address


 Name , Address, Phone numbers, Facsimile numbers. E-mail address


The second page should carry the full title of the manuscript and an abstract (of no more than 150 words for case reports, brief reports and 250 words for original articles). The abstract should be structured and state the Context (Background), Aims, Settings and Design, Methods and Material, Statistical analysis used, Results and Conclusions.


Include up to six keywords that describe your paper for indexing and for web searches.


State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation.


The methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section.


Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.


Include Summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research). Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section.


Summarize what the reviewer should take away from your case report both in terms of the topic and your management of the patient


Standard abbreviations should be used and be spelt out when first used in the text. Abbreviations should not be used in the title or abstract.


List here any individuals who contributed in the work but do not qualify for authorship base on the above criteria


Declare here if any financial interest or any conflict of interest exists


Recent and relevant references only;  (Surname First Name Middle Name, Surname First Name Middle Name. Title of article. Journal Name Year;Volume(Number):Full inclusive page numbers.)


Manuscript file format:

We request to submit articles in Microsoft Word format (.DOC). If you are using another word processor please save final version of the manuscript (using the ‘Save As’ option of the file menu) as a Word document. In this case please double check that the saved file can be opened in Microsoft Word. We cannot accept Acrobat .PDF or any other text files.

Page Setup:

Main Text: (Page Size-A4 (width 8.27″ X Height 11.69”),

Page Margin: Top:1”; Bottom:1”; Left:1.5”; Right:1”; Gutter:0”; Gutter position :Left),

Font Size for Title-14 Pt. Book New Times Roman,

Font size for Text-10 pt,

Line Space for Text-1 line space,

Table and Figures- Center Align.

Language and grammar:

Uniformly American English or Hindi (Kruti Dev 010 Font)

Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time. Numerals from 1 to l0 spelt out

Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out

General Format:

Before submission of the new manuscript authors should consider the following general rules for preparation of the manuscript. Please read these instructions carefully and follow the guidelines strictly.

Manuscripts must be typed on A4 (210 × 297 mm) paper, double-spaced throughout and with ample margins of at least 2.5 cm. All pages must be numbered consecutively. Starting with the title page as p.1, the text, which begins with p.2, is to be arranged in the following order: abstract, brief introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, figure legends, tables.

The first page of the full manuscript must begin with the title of the paper centered on the page in 14 point Bold Title Case (title case means first letter of each main word capitalized), the names of the authors (Initials – followed by a period each – Family Name) with the main author’s name mentioned first, the names and locations of the authors’ affiliations (Title Case), and the e-mail address of the main author. The title page must provide the title in English, a short title of not more than 45 characters (including spaces) to be used as running head, up to five topical key words in English for subject indexing, the full postal address of the corresponding author to whom proofs will be sent. The title should be brief and should indicate the species studied. Subtitles are not encouraged.

The abstract should not exceed 250 words, should be one paragraph and should be free of references and abbreviations. It should indicate clearly the scope and main conclusions of the paper.

The introduction should give the pertinent background to the study and should explain why the work was done.

The materials and methods (or methodology) should give essential details, including experimental design and statistical analysis.

The results should present the findings of the research. They should be free from discussion. Results should be written in the past tense.

The discussion should cover, but not simply repeat the new findings and should present the author’s results in broader context of other work on the subject interpreting them with a minimum of speculation.

The acknowledgements should be as brief as possible.

Equations should be typewritten and with the number placed in parentheses at the right margin. Reference to the equation should use the form ‘Eq. (3)’ or ‘(3)’.


While presenting data, authors should anticipate the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large and complex tables, figures and maps should be avoided in the main paper, but can be included in a data appendix for use by the reviewers.

Figures should be saved in a neutral data format such as JPEG, TIFF or EPS. PowerPoint and Word graphics are unsuitable for reproduction. Please do not use any pixel-oriented programmes. Scanned figures (in JPEG and TIFF formats) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size.

Any tables and figures that are included in the main text of the paper should be numbered separately, in the sequence that they are mentioned in the text.

Each table and figure should be presented on a separate page of the manuscript, with a brief and self-explanatory title. All text should be clearly legible, and all graphics and legends should be easily distinguished when printed in black and white. Tables should use horizontal lines only, with only blank space to separate columns.

Notes under each table and figure should be used to explain and specify the source of all data shown.


References must be cited in the text in superscript digits at end of sentence or paragraph before punctuation or full stop1. In case of two or more references, separate the superscript digits by comma1,2,6. Moreover, If there are more references but in continuous numbers then use dash between superscript digits2-6.Citation may be direct or indirect, see the following examples;

Direct citation

  1. a) Farooq et al. 1 studied the temperature effect on cuticular hydrocarbons of termite.
  2. b) According to Shafqat and Saba2, cuticular hydrocarbons can be used to identify termite species.
  3. c) Variations in cuticular hydrocarbons may also assist for species recognition and foraging behaviour, investigated by Zeeshan and Pasha3.

Indirect citation

  1. a) Temperature affects cuticular hydrocarbons of termite1. Cuticular hydrocarbons can be used to identify termite species2. Variations in cuticular hydrocarbons may also assist for species recognition and foraging behavior3.

Generally, units must be abbreviated according to the International System of Units (SI units).  It is important to maintain the capital letters and lower case letters as they appear in the abbreviation to avoid confusion with the other abbreviations.


The list of references appears at the end of your work and gives the full details of everything that you have used, according to same chronological order as cited in the text.

All sources must be referred in a consistent manner. Choose from the list of sources below, the examples given, provide a guide to the format and punctuation you should use.

  • Journal (Print)
  • Journal (Electronic)
  • Book
  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Papers

Journal Article (Print)


  1. Author’s surname, Initial
  2. Publication Year
  3. Article Title
  4. Name of Journal (in standard abbreviation)
  5. Volume
  6. Starting Pages
  7. Ending Pages
  8. Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  9. Direct link of the published article


Sepaskhah, A.R. and M.M. Ghasemi, 2008. Every-other-furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals for grain sorghum. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 1234-1239. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1234.1239; PMID 236548759;

Journal Article (Electronic)


  1. Author’s surname, Initial
  2. Publication Year
  3. Article Title
  4. Name of Journal (with/without abbreviations)
  5. Volume
  6. Page Numbers (if applicable)
  7. Available at
  8. Accessed on (enter date you viewed the article)
  9. Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Brittion, A., 2006. How much and how often should we drink? Br. Med. J., 332: 1224-1225.

Available from: [Accessed 2 June 2006].


  • Author/Editor’s Surname and initials
  • Year of publication
  • Title of Book
  • Edition (if applicable)
  • Place of publication: (followed by a colon)
  • Name of publisher
  • ISBN Number


Anderson, J. and M. Poole, 1998. Assignment and thesis writing. 3re Edn., John While and Sons.

Book Chapter

  • Author/Editor’s Surname and initials
  • Year of publication
  • Title of Chapter
  • In: (enter editor’s surname and initials)
  • Book Title
  • Edition (if applicable)
  • Place of publication: (followed by a colon)
  • Name of publisher
  • Page number
  • ISBN


Mason, J., 1999. Recent Developments in the Prediction of Global Warming. In: Energy Demand and Planning, McVeigh, J.C. and J.G. Morgue, (Eds.). E&FN Spon., pp: 34-52.

Conference Papers

Conference paper’s should be referenced using the following format and punctuation.

  • Author’s surname, initials
  • Date of publication
  • Title of paper
  • In: Editor’s surname, initials, (if applicable)• Title of proceeding

  • Place of conference
  • Date of conference
  • Publishers
  • Page numbers of contribution


Clifton, J.J., 1999. Hazard prediction. In: Disaster prevention, planning and limitation. University of Bradford, 12-13 September 1989. Technical Communications Ltd., pp: 54-64.


Authors are asked to facilitate the review process by providing the names and e-mail addresses of at least three suitable reviewers, on the understanding that the editor is not bound by any such nomination. Failure to follow this request may delay the handling of your paper, since the editorial office may specifically ask you to nominate potential reviewers for papers covering unfamiliar areas.


Manuscript should be submitted electronically to Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences (BPAS) to facilitate rapid publication and minimize administrative costs. All manuscripts should be submitted through online submission system. A user ID and password for the site can be obtained on first use. Online submission ensures the quickest possible review and allows authors to track the progress of their papers. It is recommended that text files are uploaded as Microsoft Word documents or generic rich text format (RTF) files and figures as JPEG, GIF, TIFF or EPS files. Authors should read Guide to Authors carefully before submission of their manuscripts.

Note: In order to submit a NEW Manuscript to Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences (BPAS), you must be a registered user of BPAS Publications, if you do not register, please register before you submit a NEW Manuscript. Submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be accepted. The submitting author takes responsibility for the paper during submission and peer review. If for some technical reason submission through the online submission system is not possible, the author may contact editorial office for help via e-mail (




You can submit your article through mail across our mail id. E-mail:

Our publication ethics and malpractice statement is based on the guidelines for journal editors developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Manuscripts submitted to IME Journal journal are evaluated entirely on the basis of their scientific content. There are no publication charges. All possible measures are taken to uphold the highest standards of publication ethics and to prevent malpractices. Authors who submit papers to our Journals attest that their work is original and unpublished and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. In addition, authors confirm that their paper is their own original work, that has not been copied or plagiarized, in whole or in part, from other works and if the authors have used the works of others the same has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Duties / Responsibilities of Editors

The Editorial Team of the Journal for Reviews on Agriculture and Allied fields, comprising the Editorial Board and the Committee for Publications is responsible for taking a decision as to which of the articles submitted to the journal are to be published. The Editors have complete discretion to reject/accept an article. The Editorial Team may confer/deliberate with other reviewers/ editors in arriving at its decisions. The evaluation of manuscripts is made on the basis of their scholarly and intellectual content without having regard to the nature of the authors or the institution including gender, race, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. The journal follows a policy of fair play in its editorial evaluation. The editors are expected to exercise caution and ensure that they have no conflict of interest with respect to the articles they accept/reject. The editors and the editorial staff follow strict confidentiality and are required not to disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers and the publisher. Authors are encouraged to correct the errors which are found during the process of review while preserving the anonymity of the reviewers.

Duties / Responsibilities of Reviewers

Editorial decisions are based on peer review. The reviewers are expected to maintain absolute confidentiality with regard to the contents of manuscripts. The reviews are to be conducted objectively and the referees are expected to express their views clearly with supporting reasons. The reviewers should have no conflict of interest with the authors and the subject matter of the research. The reviewers are required to identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any observation or argument which has been previously reported should also be accompanied along with the relevant citation. Similarities or overlaps between the manuscript under review and any other published paper of which the reviewer may have personal knowledge, may also be brought to be attention of the editors. The information or ideas obtained through peer review are of a privileged nature and must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative or other relationship with any of authors or institutions connected to the papers.


Duties/Responsibilities of the Authors

Authors are required to present an accurate account of the original research work and also an objective discussion of its significance. The paper should contain sufficient details of the updated literature and references. It is expected that all the authors have significantly contributed to the research. Fraudulent and knowingly made inaccurate statement constitutes unethical behavior and would be unacceptable. Authors are required to ensure that the submitted work is original and has not been published elsewhere, and if the authors have used the work of others the same has been appropriately cited or quoted. Applicable copyright laws and conventions are required to be followed. Copyright materials should be reproduced only with permission and due acknowledgement. Authors are not expected to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently would constitute unethical practice and would be unacceptable. Proper acknowledgement of the work of others must always be made. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the paper which is submitted for publication. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Others who have participated in certain substantive aspects in the development of the paper should also be acknowledged. The corresponding author is required to ensure that all co-authors are included in the paper, and that the co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. All sources of financial support should also be disclosed. Upon discovery of any significant error in the published work, it is the responsibility of the authors to promptly notify the editors and cooperate in the retraction or correction of the paper.

IME Journal is a referred bi-annual Journal of the Institute of Management Education, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad. It is published twice a year in January and July. The objective of the Journal is to provide research and information support to the academicians, researchers, corporate sector and policy makers so as to equip them with latest development & trends in the areas of Management, Information Technology and Law. The Journal publishes Research Papers, Articles, Case Studies, Book Reviews, Bibliography, etc. The selection of the papers in this journal is done through a blind review process.

1. Innovation and Leadership Economics in Work Situations throughout the World

Rishan Singh, Research Media SR, Durban 4041, Durban, South Africa



The work environment places many constraints on leadership attitudes and attributes because the environment influences productivity, as well as, performance in the work setting. This means that innovation varies in companies, because of people from different socioeconomic standings. However, racial and cultural differences also exist, and in some states, caste differences also affect labour economics. Recently, it had been announced that politicians in different regions of the world are affected on the basis of country demographics, and caste. Although this is acceptable in the light of politics, innovation and leadership economics can become stifled. This means that a greater emphasis on the socioeconomic situation within the work place needs to be addressed. There seems to also be cases where the efforts of young people are shunted due to political effulgence

2. Information Needs and Retrieval Habits of Children in the District Central Libraries in Tamil Nadu
Dr. S. Bindhu*, Dr. P. Balasubramanian**

*Asst. Professor (T), Department of Library and Information Science, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627012, 

**University Librarian & Head, Department of Library and Information Science, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627012, India.




The present study gives importance to children library in the districts central library, Tamil Nadu.  The information sources and services available in the districts central libraries are analyzed and the results are narrated in the form of data and observed the availability of digital and online services.  The major part of the study focused on children and their satisfaction from the library.  It we can make good changes in a child’s life, and then eventually it will help in shaping a better world in future.  Libraries can help in sharing a better future for a child.  Children libraries not only support the basic education but also extra-curricular activities for the overall development of the child.  In the light of changing information and communication technology, children libraries should also need to change their policies and strategies. The present study covers all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu and the Children who are regular users of the district central libraries. A stratified random sample of 960 child respondents has been identified at the rate of 30 per district totaling 960 sample respondents.  A survey was held with the help of a structured close-ended. Questionnaire to elicit the required information. The data collected have been tabulated; statistical tools were applied for analysis and for interpretation.  The findings of the study are summarized and necessary suggestions have been offered at the end.


3. Growth Cannot be Judged in Isolation
D.R. Agarwal*, Suruchi Kapur**

*Professor Emeritus, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana 122413, India **Assistant Professor, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana 122413, India




Economic growth is a multi-dimensional concept and is reflected in people’s better standard of living, better food, clothing and housing, improved education, sanitation, medical facilities,  better means of transport and communication and information technology, reduction in the level of poverty, hunger, unemployment and inequalities in distribution of economic and social power, increase in productivity with advancement of science and technology, carrying out innovation through research in different fields promotion of human skills, improvement in production functions, participation of less advantageous section of the society in decision making (no discrimination on the basis of cast, creed, religion, gender, place, religion, family background, ideology, fait , language etc.), empowerment of the needy section of the society, inclusive and sustainable growth (meeting the needs of not only present generation but also future generation without any sort of pollution of natural resources), distribution of gains on the basis of equity and justice, internal and external place etc. Exclusion of any section, place, religion, community, sector etc. does not carry the true spirit of growth. Growth rate must be far greater than that of the rate of growth of population. Economic and social stability is equally important. Indian economy is passing through a phase of economic slow-down amid the advantageous situation of demographic dividend and inflation. An attempt has been made to study these in relation to our values and value system.

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Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. A.K. Sharma


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